How a CPU Works.

How a CPU Works ?

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    CPU short for Central Processing Unit is like the brain of the computer and once you understand how it works you will understand the computer too. Let's take off the cover of the CPU and zoom in to see what happens inside. There are a lot of different wires carrying information around the CPU, this particular CPU is called the 6502 and on computers like the Apple 2 and the Commodore 64 This simulation scene of the 6502 was used in the original Nintendo Entertainment System as well as the 6502 org in . Every CPU has a special wire that turns on and off at a constant rate to help keep everything in sync. That wire is called the clock and in this simulation the clock is about two times a second. Modern CPU's are measured in gigahertz Giga means in billion Hertz means time per second So in modern CPUs clock turns on several billion times per second is the speed that allows the CPU to do very complex things very quickly. However, what the CPU does during each clock tick is actually very simple and few. We will see more in this video For now we will zoom out back and put the cover back on CPU and your computer can be made by a company like Intel or AMD but the type of CPU we are going to look at today is Scott CPU Said scott cpu doesn't really exist except as a design in a book called how to know but by john scott the design of scott cpu is copyrighted and used in this video with permission of john The book is available here but not com how? It's a great book that goes over each component of the CPU very slowly without using too much technical jargon, if you're looking for a book that explains how a computer works. I highly recommend it. So let's turn the CPU over and look down. You'll see a lot of pins sticking out that allow the CPU to take information and send it back. The CPU fits into what's known as the motherboard. As you know, the motherboard allows all components to be connected to each other so we'll flip the CPU back over and plug it into the motherboard. The right side of the motherboard is a place for something called RAM, for random access memory. RAM is small and only contains all the data that is being processed by the CPU. Let's learn a little more about RAM. How the CPU and RAM interact. For now let's get rid of the wires on the left and RAM. Move the motherboard up to make room for the chip. RAM contains a list of addresses and each of those addresses carries a piece of data. The CPU typically requests each piece of data from the RAM, one after the other. However, if the CPU is instructed to retrieve the data out of sequence data can be accessed randomly if it normally should be. It is accessed in sequence. When the computer first starts running a program, it sends an address to the RAM to retrieve that program. The RAM address consists of a series of zeros and zeros representing only the on and off wires. happens ram doesn't do anything with that address,

     However unless the CPU also sets or turns on the enable wire if the enable wire is on then the RAM automatically sends whatever data is at that address back to the CPU. That data is then processed by the CPU accordingly. Once the CPU is finished processing that piece of data it sends another address to RAM, turns on the enable wire and receives the next piece of data from RAM. This process occurs repeatedly inside the computer. needs to save data to ram then it outputs an address output some data, and then turn on the set wire then ram will overwrite the data at that address with new data but what is that data inside ram Because it just looks like a bunch of ones and zeros. Well, it's made up of different things. Some of the most important pieces of data in RAM are instructions. Instructions just tell the CPU to work with different numbers inside that data. are also there. These are the numbers that you want to add together, compare or just process in some way. Another thing and it's kind of weird that the data is in the address at a special memory address in RAM, the data itself is also an address These addresses can be used for various things for example if you want to output a number to an external device you need to know the address of that particular device do you want to send data to the printer, or for example You want to send it to the monitor? If you want to show some text on the screen, then the characters are also stored in RAM.

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